After 1990 Prof. Balázs joined the Government and the diplomatic service of Hungary several times. He was a State Secretary for Industry and Trade (1992-1993) and a State Secretary for European Integration (2002-2003). He was nominated Ambassador of Hungary to Denmark (1994-1996), Germany (1997-2000) and to the EU in Brussels (2003-2004). In 2009-2010 he was Foreign Minister of Hungary. He was Government Representative of Hungary in the European Convention drafting the Constitutional Treaty which has become, after several modifications, the Lisbon Treaty.
In 2004, he was nominated the first Hungarian Member of the European Commission responsible for regional policy. Upon the invitation of the European Commission, he coordinates priority projects of the Trans-European Transport Network.
Prof. Balázs is currently holding a Jean Monnet Ad Personam Chair at CEU. His research activities are centered on the foreign policy of the EU and problems of the late modernization and European integration of the Eastern part of the continent. He also analyzes questions of European governance including the future of European institutions.